Definition of Surgical Instruments
Surgical Instruments can be defined as specially designed tools or devices used in surgery. More specifically, surgeons or healthcare provider perform specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, or suturing using different types of surgical instruments. You’ll find most of these instruments made from stainless steel. However, other metals like titanium, chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum, are also used.
Surgical instruments are used by surgeons, dentists, physicians, and many other health care providers.
Categories of Surgical Instruments
There are vast varieties of surgical instruments. We can categorize surgical instruments on he basis of their function which are:
– cutting, grinding, and dissecting
– grasping and holding
– dilating or enlarging
Scissors: Scissors are an example of cutting instruments. Their classification are done on the basis of type of points. Scissors can have blunt or sharp blades. Also, all types can have either straight or curved blades. Mayo scissors are used for cutting heavy fascia and sutures while Metzenbaum scissors are more delicate than Mayo scissors and used to cut delicate tissues.
Forceps: Forceps consist of two tines held together at one end with a spring device that holds the tines open. Forceps are of two types: tissue forceps or dressing forceps. Also. there are Hemostats and Hemostatic Forceps, and Intestinal Forceps.
Needle Holder: Needle holders are hinged (locking) instrument used to hold the needle while suturing tissue. A good quality needle holder is ensured with tungsten carbide inserts at the tip of the needle holder.
Retractors: Retractors assist in the visualization of the operative field while preventing trauma to other tissues. They are of two types hand held and self retaining.
Scalpel: Scalpel is a sharp dissector. There are two parts in a scalpel – handles and blades. These handles and blades have different numbers. Disposable Scalpels are also available.
Towel Clamps: A Towel clamp secure drapes to a patient’s skin. They may also be used to hold tissue.
Suction Devices: Suction device helps in removing blood and other fluids from a surgical or dental operative field.
Preparation & Sterilization
There are strict institutional and professional protocols for the preparation of surgical instruments. They must be sterilized prior to use. Even during a procedure, surgical instruments must be kept clean. Surgical instruments must also be promptly rinsed and thoroughly cleaned and sterilized after a procedure.
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